Solid Hydrocarbons

Selected References - revised November, 2014

   These bibliographic references have been compiled as a TSOP project, and organic petrologists have found the references to be useful in their work. They should be available at university or geological research center libraries. They are not available from TSOP, except for those listed on our Publications page, or as part of the TSOP Newsletter.


Abraham, H., 1960, Asphalts and allied substances (sixth edition, 5 volumes): New York, Van Nostrand Company, Inc.

Aizenshtat, Z., I. Miloslavski, and E. Tannenbaum, 1986, Thermal behavior of immature asphalts and related kerogens: Organic Geochemistry, v. 10, p. 537-546.

Alturki, Y.I.A., G. Eglinton, and C.T. Pillinger, 1972, The petroporphyrins of gilsonite, in H.R.V. Gaertner and H. Wehner, eds., Advances in Organic Geochemistry 1971: New York, Pergamon Press, p. 135-150.

American Gilsonite Company, 1969, Gilsonite Guide Book: Salt Lake City, Utah, American Gilsonite Company, 22 p.

American Gilsonite Company, 1979, Gilsonite: Salt Lake City, Utah, American Gilsonite Company, 16 p.

Ammosov, I.I., 1981, Petrographic features of solid organic materials as indicators of paleotemperatures and oil potential: International Geology Review, v. 23, p. 406-416.

Barker, C.E., and Y. Bone, 1994, The minimal response to contact metamorphism by the Devonian Buchan Caves Limestone, Buchan Rift, Victoria, Australia: Organic Geochemistry, v. 22, p. 151-164.

Beach, J.O., 1945, Oklahoma asphaltite deposits: Oklahoma Geological Survey, The Hopper, v. 5, p. 51-60.

Bell, K.G., 1960, Uranium and other trace elements in petroleums and rock asphalts: U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 356-B, p. 45-65.

Bell, K.G., and J.M. Hunt, 1963, Native bitumens associated with oil shales, in I.A. Breger, ed., Organic geochemistry: The Macmillan Company, A Pergamon Press Book, Earth Science Series, Monograph 16, p. 333-366.

Bertrand, R., and Y. Heroux, 1987, Chitinozoan, graptolite, and scolecodont reflectance as an alternative to vitrinite and pyrobitumen reflectance in Ordovician and Silurian strata, Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada: AAPG Bulletin, v. 71, p. 951-957.

Bertrand, R., 1990, Correlations among the reflectances of vitrinite, chitinozoans, graptolites and scolecodonts: Organic Geochemistry, v. 15, p. 565-574.

Bertrand, R., 1993, Standardization of solid bitumen reflectance to vitrinite in some Paleozoic sequences of Canada, in F. Goodarzi and R.W. Macqueen, eds., Geochemistry and petrology of bitumen with respect to hydrocarbon generation and mineralization: Energy Sources, v. 15, p. 269-287.

Beskrovnyi, N.S., I.S. Gol’dberg, K.K. Makarov, V.S. Sobolev, and S.D. Taliev, 1975, Natural solid bitumens in the USSR — an important raw material reserve for the national economy: Geologiia Nefti I Gaza, no. 4, p. 14-20.

Blake, W.P., 1885, Uintahite, a new variety of asphaltum from the Uinta Mountains, Utah: Engineering and Mining Journal, v. 40, p. 431.

Blake, W.P., 1889, Wurtzilite: Engineering and Mining Journal, v. 48, p. 542.

Blake, W.P., 1890, Uintaite, albertite, grahamite, and asphaltum described and compared, with observations on bitumen and its compounds: Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, v. 18, p. 563-582.

Boden, T., and B.T. Tripp, 2012, Gilsonite veins of the Uinta Basin, Utah: Utah Geological Survey Special Study 141, 50 p.

Boden, T., 2014, Utah still supplying gilsonite to the world after 125 years of mining: Utah Geological Survey, Survey Notes, v. 46, no. 1, p. 4-5.

Breger, I.A., 1963, Origin and classification of naturally occurring carbonaceous substances, in I.A. Breger, ed., Organic Geochemistry: The Macmillan Company, A Pergamon Press Book, Earth Science Series, Monograph 16, p. 50-86.

Broadhead, G.C., 1877, Bitumen, asphaltum, petroleum, pyroschists, and certain other solid hydrocarbons: The Western Review of Science and Industry, v. 1, p. 209-224.

Brüning, M., H. Sahling, I.R. MacDonald, F. Ding, and G. Bohrmann, 2010, Origin, distribution, and alteration of asphalts at Chapopote Knoll, southern Gulf of Mexico: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 27, p. 1093-1106.

Buick, R., B. Rasmussen, and B. Krapez, 1998, Archaen oil: evidence for extensive hydrocarbon generation and migration 2.5–3.5 Ga: AAPG Bulletin, v. 82, p. 50-69.

Cardott, B.J., N.H. Suneson, and C.A. Ferguson, 1989, The Page impsonite mine, Le Flore County, Oklahoma: Oklahoma Geological Survey, Oklahoma Geology Notes, v. 49, p. 32-39.

Cardott, B.J., 1991, Organic petrology of epi-impsonite at Page, Oklahoma, U.S.A.: Organic Geochemistry, v. 17, p. 185-191.

Cardott, B.J., T.E. Ruble, and N.H. Suneson, 1993, Nature of migrabitumen and their relation to regional thermal maturity, Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma, in F. Goodarzi and R.W. Macqueen, eds., Geochemistry and petrology of bitumen with respect to hydrocarbon generation and mineralization: Energy Sources, v. 15, p. 239-267.

Chilingarian, G.V., and T.F. Yen, eds., 1978, Bitumens, asphalts, and tar sands: New York, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Developments in Petroleum Science 7, 331 p.

Chowdhurry, A.H., M.G. Fowler, and J.P.A. Noble, 1991, Petroleum geochemistry and geology of the Albert Formation Moncton subbasin, New Brunswick, Canada: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 39, p. 315-331.

Cornelius, C.D., 1987, Classification of natural bitumen: a physical and chemical approach, in R.F. Meyer, ed., Exploration for heavy crude oil and natural bitumen: AAPG Studies in Geology 25, p. 165-174.

Crane, W.R., 1906, Asphaltic coals: Mines and Minerals, v. 26, p. 252-255.

Crawford, A.L., 1949, Gilsonite and related hydrocarbons of the Uinta basin, Utah, in G.H. Hansen and M.M. Bell, eds., The oil and gas possibilities of Utah: Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey, p. 235-260.

Crawford, A.L., and R.G. Pruitt, 1963, Gilsonite and other bituminous resources of central Uintah County, Utah, in A.L. Crawford, ed., Oil and gas possibilities of Utah, re-evaluated: Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey, Bulletin 54, p. 215-224.

Crick, I.H., 1992, Petrological and maturation characteristics of organic matter from the middle Proterozoic McArthur basin, Australia: Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 39, p. 501-519.

Cross, A.T., and G.D. Wood, 1976, Palynology and petrography of some solid bitumens of the Uinta basin, Utah: Brigham Young University Geology Studies, v. 22, p. 157-173.

Curiale, J.A., and W.E. Harrison, 1981, Correlation of oil and asphaltite in Ouachita Mountain region of Oklahoma: AAPG Bulletin, v. 65, p. 2426-2432.

Curiale, J.A., 1983, Petroleum occurrences and source-rock potential of the Ouachita Mountains, southeastern Oklahoma: Oklahoma Geological Survey, Bulletin 135, 65 p.

Curiale, J.A., W.E. Harrison, and G. Smith, 1983, Sterane distribution of solid bitumen pyrolyzates. Changes with biodegradation of crude oil in the Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 47, p. 517-523.

Curiale, J.A., 1986, Origin of solid bitumens, with emphasis on biological marker results: Organic Geochemistry, v. 10, p. 559-580.

Curiale, J.A., 1987, Distribution and occurrence of metals in heavy crude oils and solid bitumens — implications for petroleum exploration, in R.F. Meyer, ed., Exploration for heavy crude oil and natural bitumen: AAPG Studies in Geology 25, p. 207-219.

Curiale, J.A., 1988, Biological markers in grahamites and pyrobitumens, in T.F. Yen and J.M. Moldowan, eds., Geochemical biomarkers: New York, Harwood Academic Publishers, p. 1-24.

Curiale, J.A., 1993, Occurrence and significance of metals in solid bitumens: an organic geochemical approach, in J. Parnell, H. Kucha, and P. Landais, eds., Bitumens in ore deposits: New York, Springer-Verlag, p. 461-474.

Douglas, A.G., and P.J. Grantham, 1974, Fingerprint gas chromatography in the analysis of some native bitumens, asphalts and related substances, in B. Tissot and F. Bienner, eds., Advances in Organic Geochemistry 1973: Paris, Editions Technip, p. 261-276.

Dumitrescu, M., D.B. Finkelstein, R.O. Lazar, J. Schieber, and S.C. Brassell, 2004, Origin and history of bitumen in geodes of the New Albany Shale, in J. Schieber and R. Lazar, eds., Devonian black shales of the eastern U.S.: New insights into sedimentology and stratigraphy from the subsurface and outcrops in the Illinois and Appalachian Basins: Indiana Geological Survey Open-File Study 04-05, p. 61-67.

Eakin, P.A., and A.P. Gize, 1992, Reflected-light microscopy of uraniferous bitumens: Mineralogical Magazine, v. 56, p. 85-99.

Finkelman, R.B., and B.J. Cardott, 1993, Trace-element content of solid hydrocarbons from Oklahoma: Oklahoma Geological Survey, Oklahoma Geology Notes, v. 53, p. 136-143.

Fouch, T.D., V.F. Nuccio, and T.C. Chidsey, Jr., eds., 1992, Hydrocarbon and mineral resources of the Uinta basin, Utah and Colorado: Salt Lake City, Utah Geological Association, Guidebook 20, 366 p.

Fowler, M.G., D.M. Kirste, F. Goodarzi, and R.W. Macqueen, 1993, Optical and geochemical classification of Pine Point bitumens and evidence for their origin from two separate source rocks, in F. Goodarzi and R.W. Macqueen, eds., Geochemistry and petrology of bitumen with respect to hydrocarbon generation and mineralization: Energy Sources, v. 15, p. 315-337.

Gentzis, T., and F. Goodarzi, 1990, A review of the use of bitumen reflectance in hydrocarbon exploration with examples from Melville Island, Arctic Canada, in V.F. Nuccio and C.E. Barker, eds., Applications of thermal maturity studies to energy exploration: S.E.P.M., Rocky Mountain Section, p. 23-36.

Gentzis, T., and F. Goodarzi, 1991, Thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potential of the sedimentary succession from the Hecla field in Sverdrup basin, Arctic Canada: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 19, p. 483-517.

Gentzis, T., and F. Goodarzi, 1993, Regional thermal maturity in the Franklinian Mobile belt, Melville Island, Arctic Canada: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 10, p. 215-230.

George, S.C., S.M. Llorca, and P.J. Hamilton, 1994, An integrated analytical approach for determining the origin of solid bitumens in the McArthur basin, northern Australia: Organic Geochemistry, v. 21, p. 235-248.

George, S.C., H. Volk, M. Ahmed, W. Pickel, and T. Allan, 2007, Biomarker evidence for two sources for solid bitumens in the Subu wells: Implications for the petroleum prospectivity of the east Papuan Basin: Organic Geochemistry, v. 38, p. 609-642.

Gize, A.P., 1990, Petroleum-derived cokes in sedimentary basins, in W.J.J. Fermont and J.W. Weegink, eds., International symposium on organic petrology: Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst, v. 45, p. 65-73.

Gize, A.P., 1993, The analysis of organic matter in ore deposits, in J. Parnell, H. Hucka, and P. Landais, eds., Bitumens in ore deposits: New York, Springer-Verlag, p. 28-52.

Glikson, M., D. Taylor, and D. Morris, 1992, Lower Palaeozoic and Precambrian petroleum source rocks and the coalification path of alginite: Organic Geochemistry, v. 18, p. 881-897.

Goodarzi, F., 1985, Preservation and characteristics of plant remains in Iranian natural bitumens: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 4, p. 321-334.

Goodarzi, F., and P.F.V. Williams, 1986, Composition of natural bitumens and asphalts from Iran, part 2, bitumens from the Posteh Ghear Valley, southwest Iran: Fuel, v. 65, p. 17-28.

Goodarzi, F., S.S. Gandhi, and L.R. Snowdon, 1989, Bitumen in a Lower Proterozoic dolomite hosting Pb-Zn-Cu occurrences, Artillery Lake, Northwest Territories, in Current Research Part C: Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 89-1C, p. 369-376.

Goodarzi, F., and R.W. Macqueen, 1990, Optical/compositional character of six bitumen species from Middle Devonian rocks of the Pine Point Pb-Zn property, Northwest Territories, Canada: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 14, p. 197-216.

Goodarzi, F., and L.D. Stasiuk, 1991, Thermal alteration of gilsonite due to bushfire, an example from southwest Iran: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 17, p. 333-342.

Goodarzi, F., O.R. Eckstrand, L. Snowdon, B. Williamson, and L.D. Stasiuk, 1992, Thermal metamorphism of bitumen in Archaen rocks by ultramafic volcanic flows: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 20, p. 165-178.

Goodarzi, F., and R.W. Macqueen, 1993, Geochemistry and petrology of bitumen with respect to hydrocarbon generation and mineralization, in F. Goodarzi and R.W. Macqueen, eds., Geochemistry and petrology of bitumen with respect to hydrocarbon generation and mineralization: Energy Sources, v. 15, p. 177-180.

Goodarzi, F., T. Gentzis, D. Mossman, and B. Nagy, 1993, Petrography and genesis of organic matter in the paleoproterozoic uraniferous conglomerates of the Elliot Lake region, Ontario, in F. Goodarzi and R.W. Macqueen, eds., Geochemistry and petrology of bitumen with respect to hydrocarbon generation and mineralization: Energy Sources, v. 15, p. 339-357.

Goodarzi, F., T. Gentzis, G. Jackson, and R.W. Macqueen, 1993, Optical characteristics of heat-affected bitumens from the Nanisivik mine, N.W. Baffin Island, Arctic Canada, in F. Goodarzi and R.W. Macqueen, eds., Geochemistry and petrology of bitumen with respect to hydrocarbon generation and mineralization: Energy Sources, v. 15, p. 359-376.

Guckert, K.D., and D.J. Mossman, 2003, Pennsylvanian coal and associated bitumen at Johnson Mills, Shepody Bay, New Brunswick, Canada: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 53, p. 137-152.

Ham, W.E., 1956, Asphaltite in the Ouachita Mountains: Oklahoma Geological Survey, Mineral Report 30, 12 p.

Hatcher, H.J., H.L.C. Meuzelaar, and D.T. Urban, 1992, A comparison of biomarkers in gilsonite, oil shale, tar sand and petroleum from Threemile Canyon and adjacent areas in the Uinta basin, Utah, in T.D. Fouch, V.F. Nuccio, and T.C. Chidsey, Jr., eds., Hydrocarbon and mineral resources of the Uinta basin, Utah and Colorado: Salt Lake City, Utah Geological Association, Guidebook 20, p. 271-287.

Helms, J.R., X. Kong, E. Salmon, P.G. Hatcher, K. Schmidt-Rohr, and J. Mao, 2012, Structural characterization of gilsonite bitumen by advanced nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry revealing pyrrolic and aromatic rings substituted with aliphatic chains: Organic Geochemistry, v. 44, p. 21-36.

Huc, A.Y., P. Nederlof, R. Debarre, B. Carpentier, M. Boussafir, F. Laggoun-Defarge, A. Lenail-Chouteau, and N. Bordas-Le Floch, 2000, Pyrobitumen occurrence and formation in a Cambro-Ordovician sandstone reservoir, Fahud Salt Basin, North Oman: Chemical Geology, v. 168, p. 99-112.

Hunt, J.M., F. Stewart, and P.A. Dickey, 1954, Origin of hydrocarbons of Uinta basin, Utah: AAPG Bulletin, v. 38, p. 1671-1698.

Hunt, J.M., 1963, Composition and origin of the Uinta basin bitumens: Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey, Bulletin 54, p. 249-273.

Hunt, J.M., 1978, Characterization of bitumens and coals: AAPG Bulletin, v. 62, p. 301-303.

Hunt, J.M., 1979, Petroleum geochemistry and geology: San Francisco, W.H. Freeman Co., 617 p.

Hutchison, L.L., 1911, Preliminary report on the rock asphalt, asphaltite, petroleum and natural gas in Oklahoma: Oklahoma Geological Survey, Bulletin 2, 256 p.

Hwang, R.J., S.C. Teerman, and R.M. Carlson, 1998, Geochemical comparison of reservoir solid bitumens with diverse origins: Organic Geochemistry, v. 29, p. 505-517.

Jackson, D., 1985, American gilsonite: mining solid hydrocarbon, in M.D. Picard, ed., Geology and energy resources, Uinta basin of Utah: Salt Lake City, Utah Geological Association, Publication 12, p. 257-262.

Jacob, H., 1967, Petrologie von asphaltiten und asphaltischen pyrobitumina: Erdol und Kohle, v. 20, p. 393-400.

Jacob, H., 1975, Mikroskopphotometrische analyse naturlicher fester erdolbitumina, in B. Alpern, ed., Petrographie de la matiere organique des sediments, relations avec la paleotemperature et le potentiel petrolier: Paris, Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, p. 103-113.

Jacob, H., and H. Wehner, 1981, Mikroskopphotometrische analyse disperser festbitumina in sedimenten: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Mineralolwissenschaft und Kohlechemie, DGMK-Projekt 232, 257 p.

Jacob, H., 1985, Disperse solid bitumens as an indicator for migration and maturity in prospecting for oil and gas: Erdol & Kohle Erdgas Petrochemie, v. 38, p. 365.

Jacob, H., 1989, Classification, structure, genesis and practical importance of natural solid oil bitumen ("migrabitumen"): International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 11, p. 65-79.

Jacob, H., 1993, Nomenclature, classification, characterization, and genesis of natural solid bitumen (migrabitumen), in J. Parnell, H. Kucha, and P. Landais, eds., Bitumens in ore deposits: New York, Springer-Verlag, p. 11-27.

Jarmołowicz-Szulc, K., Ł. Karwowski, and L. Marynowski, 2012, Fluid circulation and formation of minerals and bitumens in the sedimentary rocks of the Outer Carpathians—Based on studies on the quartz–calcite–organic matter association: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 32, p. 138-158.

Kara-Gülbay, R., and S. Korkmaz, 2013, Organic geochemistry of the asphaltite occurrences in the Gümüşhacikőy (Amasya) area, northern Turkey: Fuel, v. 107, p. 74-83.

Kelemen, S.R., C.C. Walters, P.J. Kwiatek, H. Freund, M. Afeworki, M. Sansone, W.A. Lamberti, R.J. Pottorf, H.G. Machel, K.E. Peters, and T. Bolin, 2010, Characterization of solid bitumens originating from thermal chemical alteration and thermochemical sulfate reduction: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 74, p. 5305-5332.

Khalimov, E.M., I.M. Klimushin, L.I. Ferdman, and I.S. Gol’dberg, 1985, Geological factors in the formation of deposits of natural bitumens: International Geology Review, v. 27, p. 187-193.

Khavari-Khorasani, G., and D.G. Murchison, 1978, Thermally metamorphosed bitumen from Windy Knoll, Derbyshire, England: Chemical Geology, v. 22, p. 91-105.

Khavari-Khorasani, G., H.E. Blayden, and D.G. Murchison, 1978, Refractive index and absorption coefficients as measures of structural organization in carbonized bitumen: Journal of Microscopy, v. 114, p. 199-204.

Khavari-Khorasani, G., H.E. Blayden, and D.G. Murchison, 1979, Microscope photometry in studies of the molecular structure of carbonized bitumens and pyrobitumens: Journal of Microscopy, v. 116, p. 337-349.

Khavari-Khorasani, G., 1983, Structure of albertite from New Brunswick, Canada: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 31, p. 123-126.

Khavari Khorasani, G., and J.K. Michelsen, 1993, The thermal evolution of solid bitumens, bitumen reflectance, and kinetic modeling of reflectance: application in petroleum and ore prospecting, in F. Goodarzi and R.W. Macqueen, eds., Geochemistry and petrology of bitumen with respect to hydrocarbon generation and mineralization: Energy Sources, v. 15, p. 181-204.

Kilborn, G.R., 1964, New methods of mining and refining gilsonite, in E.F. Sabatka, ed., Guidebook to the geology and mineral resources of the Uinta basin: Intermountain Association of Petroleum Geologists, 13th annual field conference, p. 247-252.

Kim, D., R.P. Philp, and R.P. Sorenson, 2010, Geochemical characterization of solid bitumen in the Chesterian (Mississippian) sandstone reservoir of the Hitch field, southwest Kansas: AAPG Bulletin, v. 94, p. 1031-1057.

King, L.H., F.E. Goodspeed, and D.S. Montgomery, 1963, A study of sedimented organic matter and its natural derivatives: Canada Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Ottawa, Mines Branch Research Report R 114, 62 p.

King, L.H., 1963, Origin of Albert mines oil shale (New Brunswick), and its associated albertite: Canada Department of Mines, Branch Report F 115, 26 p.

King, L.H., 1963, On the origin of anthraxolite and impsonite: Canada Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Mines Branch Research Report R 116, 9 p.

Kirste, D., M.G. Fowler, F. Goodarzi, and R.W. Macqueen, 1989, Optical and compositional characters and paleothermal implications of a diverse suite of natural bitumens from Middle Devonian carbonate rocks, Pine Point, Northwest Territories, in Current research, part G: Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 89-1G, p. 51-55.

Klubov, B.A., 1993, A new scheme for the formation and classification of bitumens: Journal of Petroleum Geology, v. 16, p. 335-344.

Kretchman, H.F., 1957, The story of gilsonite: Salt Lake City, Utah, American Gilsonite Company, 96 p.

Ladoo, R.B., 1920, The natural hydrocarbons; gilsonite, elaterite, wurtzilite, grahamite, ozokerite and others: U.S. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 2121, 12 p.

Landis, C.R., and J.R. Castaño, 1994, Maturation and bulk chemical properties of a suite of solid hydrocarbons: Organic Geochemistry, v. 22, p. 137-149.

Levine, J.R., 1987, Characteristics and origin of fracture-hosted impsonite, Quebec City area, Canada: Organic Geochemistry, v. 11, p. 425-426.

Levine, J.R., I.M. Samson, and R. Hesse, 1991, Occurrence of fracture-hosted impsonite and petroleum fluid inclusions, Quebec City region, Canada: AAPG Bulletin, v. 75, p. 139-155.

Liao, Y., Y. Fang, L. Wu, A. Geng, and C.S. Hsu, 2012, The characteristics of the biomarkers and δ13C of n-alkanes released from thermally altered solid bitumens at various maturities by catalytic hydropyrolysis: Organic Geochemistry, v. 46, p. 56-65.

Lobzova, R.V., and T.A. Ziborova, 1988, Behavior of high-carbon solid during metamorphism: International Geology Review, v. 30, p. 187-196.

Lomando, A.J., 1992, The influence of solid reservoir bitumen on reservoir quality: AAPG Bulletin, v. 76, p. 1137-1152.

Lubick, N., 2005, Getting bitumen flowing: Geotimes, v. 49, no. 12, p. 22-23.

Luo, Q., N. Zhong, J. Qin, K. Li, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, and L. Ma, 2014, Thucholite in Mesoproterozoic shales from northern north China: Occurrence and indication for thermal maturity: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 125, p. 1-9. [thucholite is uranium-bearing pyrobitumen]

Mancuso, J.J., and R.E. Seavoy, 1981, Precambrian coal or anthraxolite: a source for graphite in high-grade schists and gneisses: Economic Geology, v. 76, p. 951-954.

Mancuso, J.J., W.A. Kneller, and J.A. Quick, 1989, Precambrian vein pyrobitumen: evidence for petroleum generation and migration 2 Ga ago: Precambrian Research, v. 44, p. 137-146.

Marikos, M.A., R.C. Laudon, and J.S. Leventhal, 1986, Solid insoluble bitumen in the Magmont West orebody, southeast Missouri: Economic Geology, v. 81, p. 1983-1988.

Marschner, R.F., and J.C. Winters, 1976, Differences among ozokerites, in T.F. Yen, ed., Shale oil, tar sands, and related fuel sources: Advances in chemistry series 151, p. 166-178.

Marsh, H., H.W. Akitt, J.M. Hurley, J. Melvin, and P. Warburton, 1971, Formation of graphitisable carbons from gilsonite pitch and polyvinyl chloride — a mass spectrometric and NMR study: Journal of Applied Chem. Biotechnology, v. 21, p. 251-260.

Marynowski, L., A. Gaweda, P. Poprawa, M.M. Zywiecki, B. Kepinska, and H. Merta, 2006, Origin of organic matter from tectonic zones in the Western Tatra Mountains crystalline basement, Poland: an example of bitumen–source rock correlation: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 23, p. 261-279.

Mastalerz, M., M.L. Thomson, A. Stankiewicz, R.M. Bustin, and A.J. Sinclair, 1994, A geochemical study of solid bitumen in an Eocene epithermal deposit: Owen Lake, British Columbia, Canada: Chemical Geology, v. 115, p. 249-262.

Mastalerz, M., and M. Glikson, 2000, In-situ analysis of solid bitumen in coal: examples from the Bowen basin and the Illinois basin: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 42, p. 207-220. (uses the term "solid bitumen" for exudatinite)

May, M.T., and K.W. Kuehn, 2009, Renewed interest in heavy oils and rock asphalt in south central Kentucky: World Oil, v. 230, no. 8, p. 65-69.

McCabe, C., R. Sassen, and B. Saffer, 1987, Occurrence of secondary magnetite within biodegraded oil: Geology, v. 15, p. 7-10.

McConville, L.B., 1975, The Athabasca tar sands: Society of Mining Engineers, Mining Engineering, v. , p. 19-34.

Merrow, J., 1957, Ozocerite at Soldier Summit, Utah, in O.G. Seal, ed., Guidebook to the geology of the Uinta basin: Intermountain Association of Petroleum Geologists, 8th annual field conference, p. 161-164.

Meyer, R.F., and W. De Witt, Jr., 1990, Definition and world resources of natural bitumens: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1944, 14 p.

Miser, H.D., and A.H. Purdue, 1918, Asphalt deposits and oil conditions in southwestern Arkansas: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 691-J, p. 271-292.

Monson, B., and J. Parnell, 1992, The origin of gilsonite vein deposits in the Uinta basin, Utah, in T.D. Fouch, V.F. Nuccio, and T.C. Chidsey, Jr., eds., Hydrocarbon and mineral resources of the Uinta basin, Utah and Colorado: Salt Lake City, Utah Geological Association Guidebook 20, p. 257-270. (also as Utah Geological Survey Contract Report CR-92-4, 27 p.)

Mossman, D.J., and B. Nagy, 1996, Solid bitumens: an assessment of their characteristics, genesis, and role in geological processes: Terra Nova, v. 8, p. 114-128.

Mueller, E., R.P. Philp, and J. Allen, 1995, Geochemical characterization and relationship of oils and solid bitumens from SE Turkey: Journal of Petroleum Geology, v. 18, p. 289-307.

Murray, A.N., 1950, The gilsonite deposits of the Uinta basin, Utah, in Petroleum geology of the Uintah basin: Intermountain Association of Petroleum Geologists Guidebook to the geology of Utah, no. 5, Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey, p. 115-120.

Nissenbaum, A., and Z. Aizenshtat, 1975, Geochemical studies on ozokerite from the Dead Sea area: Chemical Geology, v. 16, p. 121-127.

Nissenbaum, A., and M. Goldberg, 1980, Asphalts, heavy oils, ozocerite and gases in the Dead Sea basin: Organic Geochemistry, v. 2, p. 167-180.

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