Selected References on
Introductionand complete set as an EndNote® X1 library
General References on Organic Petrology and Geochemistry
Visual Kerogen Analysis
Coalbed Methane (short list)
Coalbed Methane (full list)
Coalbed-Methane Associated Water
Coal Mine Methane
Coal Geology - new in 2011
Coal as Oil Source Rock
Coal Chemistry - new in 2011
Chemistry of Coal Macerals
Macerals in Reflected White Light
Vitrinite Reflectance Analysis
Effects of Overpressure on Vitrinite Reflectance
Minerals in Coal
Mineral Matrix Effects
Weathering and Oxidation
Conversion - new in 2008
Carbonization - new in 2009
references last updated December 2011
Please submit suggested additions to
Chemistry of Coal Macerals
Selected References - revised December, 2011
These bibliographic references have been compiled as a TSOP project, and organic petrologists have found the references to be useful in their work. They should be available at university or geological research center libraries. They are not available from TSOP, except for those listed on our Publications page, or as part of the TSOP Newsletter.
Benedict, L.G., R.R. Thompson, J.J. Shigo, and R.P. Aikman, 1968, Pseudovitrinite in Appalachian coking coals: Fuel, v. 47, p. 125-143.
Bustin, R.M., A.E. Cameron, D.A. Grieve, and W.D. Kalkreuth, 1985, Coal petrology, its principles, methods and applications, 2nd edition: Geological Association of Canada, Short Course Notes, No. 3, 230 p.
Bustin, R.M. M. Mastalerz, and M. Raudsepp, 1996, Electron-probe microanalysis of light elements in coal and other kerogen: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 32, p. 5-30.
Bustin, R.M., M. Mastalerz, and K.R. Wilks, 1993, Direct determination of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen in coal using the electron microprobe: Fuel, v. 72, p. 181-185.
Bustin, R.M., M. Mastalerz, and K.R. Wilks, 1992, Electron microprobe determination of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen content in in-situ macerals, in George Vorvopoulos, ed., Elemental Analysis of Coal and its By-products: Int. Conf Proc., Kentucky, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. Singapore, p. 228-231.
Bustin, R.M., M. Mastalerz, K.R. Wilks, and M. Lamberson, 1993, Direct major (C,N,O) and minor element analysis of coal macerals by electron microprobe: Energy Sources, v. 15, p. 653-669.
Brenner, D., 1984, Microscopic IR spectroscopy of coals, in R.E. Winans and J.C. Crelling, eds., Chemistry and Characterization of Coal Macerals: Washington, American Chemical Society, ACS Symposium Series 252, p. 48-64.
Brown, H.R., A.C. Cook, and G.H. Taylor, 1963, Variations in the properties of vitrinite in isometamorphic coal: Fuel, v. 43, p. 111-124.
Dormans, H.N.M., F.J. Huntjens, and D.W. van Krevelen, 1957, Chemical structure and properties of coal – composition of the individual macerals (vitrinites, fusinites, micrinites and exinites): Fuel, v. 36, p. 321-339.
Dutcher, R.R., E.W. White, and W. Spackman, 1964, Elemental ash distribution in coal components – use of the electron probe: Proceedings of the 22nd Ironmaking Conference, Iron and Steel Division, The Metallurgical Society of A.I.M.M.E., p. 463-483.
Dyrkacz, G.R., and E.P. Horwitz, 1982, Separation of coal macerals: Fuel, v. 61, p. 3-12.
Dyrkacz, G.R., C.A.A. Bloomquist, and L. Ruscic, 1991, An investigation of the vitrinite maceral group in microlithotypes using density gradient separation method: Energy and Fuels, v. 5, p. 155-163.
Ghosh, T.K., 1971, Change in coal macerals: Fuel, v. 50, p. 218-221.
Gurba, L.W., and C.R. Ward, 1998, Vitrinite reflectance anomalies in the high-volatile bituminous coals of the Gunnedah Basin, New South Wales, Australia: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 36, p. 111-140.
Gurba, L.W., and C.R. Ward, 2000, Elemental composition of coal macerals in relation to vitrinite reflectance, Gunnedah Basin, Australia, as determined by electron microprobe analysis: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 44, p. 127-147.
International Committee for Coal Petrology (I.C.C.P.), 1963, 1971, International Handbook of Coal Petrography, 2nd ed. (1963); suppl. To 2nd ed. (1971): Centre Nat. de Rech. Sci., Paris.
Kaegi, D.D., 1985, On the identification and origin of pseudovitrinite: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 4, p. 309-319.
Kuehn, D.W., R.W. Snyder, and P.C. Painter, 1982, Characterization of vitrinite concentrates. 1. Fourier Transform infrared studies: Fuel, v. 61, p. 682-694.
Li, Z., P.M. Fredericks, C.R. Ward, and L. Rintoul, 2010, Chemical functionalities of high and low sulfur Australian coals: A case study using micro attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry: Organic Geochemistry, v. 41, p. 554-558.
Mastalerz, M., and R.M. Bustin, 1993, Variation in elemental composition of macerals; an example of the application of electron microprobe to coal studies: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 22, p. 83-99.
Mastalerz, M., and R.M. Bustin, 1993, Electron microprobe and micro-FTIR analysis applied to maceral chemistry: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 24, p. 333-345.
Mastalerz, M., and R.M. Bustin, 1993, Variation in maceral chemistry within and between coals of varying rank: an electron microprobe and micro-FTIR investigation: Journal of Microscopy, v. 171, Part 2, p. 153-166.
Mastalerz, M., and R.M. Bustin, 1994, Variation in reflectance and chemistry of vitrinite and vitrinite precursors in a series of Tertiary coals, Arctic Canada: Organic Geochemistry, v. 22, p. 921-933.
Mastalerz, M., and R.M. Bustin, 1996, Application of reflectance micro-FTIR in studying macerals; an example from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous coals of the Mist Mountain Formation, British Columbia, Canada: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 32, p. 55-67.
Mastalerz, M., and R.M. Bustin, 1997, Variation in chemistry of macerals in coals of the Mist Mountain Formation, Elk valley Coalfield, B.C., Canada: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 33, p. 43-59.
Mastalerz, M., R.M. Bustin, and M.N. Lamberson, 1993, Variation in chemistry of vitrinite and semifusinite as a function of associated inertinite content: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 22, p. 149-162.
Mastalerz, M., and J.C. Hower, 1996, Elemental composition and molecular structure of Botryococcus alginate in Westphalian cannel coals from Kentucky: Organic Geochemistry, v. 24, p. 301-308.
Mastalerz, M., J.C. Hower, and A. Carmo, 1998, In-situ FTIR and flash pyrolysis/GC-MS characterization of Protosalvinia (Upper Devonian, Kentucky): implications for maceral classification: Organic Geochemistry, v. 28, p. 57-66.
Mastalerz, M., K.R. Wilks, and R.M. Bustin, 1993, Variation in vitrinite chemistry as a function of associated liptinite content; a microprobe and FTIR investigation: Organic Geochemistry, v. 20, p. 555-562.
Smith, G.S., and A.C. Cook, 1980, Coalification paths of exinite, vitrinite, and inertinite: Fuel, v. 59, p. 641-646.
Stach, E., 1982, The microscopically recognizable constituents of coal, in Stach’s Textbook of Coal Petrology, 3rd ed.: Berlin, Gebruder Borntraeger, p. 87-218.
Stankiewicz, B.A., M.A. Kruge, and M. Mastalerz, 1996, A study of constituent macerals of Miocene and Eocene coals from Indonesia: implications for the origin of aliphatic-rich vitrinite and resinite: Organic Geochemistry, v. 24, p. 531-545.
Stankiewicz, B.A., M. Mastalerz, M.P. Kruge, P.F. van Bergen, and A. Sadowska, 1997, A comparative study of recent and fossil cone scales and seeds of conifers: a geochemical approach: New Phytologist, v. 135, p. 375-393.
Walker, R., and M. Mastalerz, 2004, Functional group and individual maceral chemistry of high volatile bituminous coals from southern Indiana: controls on coking: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 58, p. 181-191.
Ward, C.R., Z. Li, and L.W. Gurba, 2007, Variations in elemental composition of macerals with vitrinite reflectance and organic sulphur in the Greta Coal Measures, New South Wales, Australia: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 69, p. 205-219.
Winans, R.E., 1984, Chemistry and characterization of coal macerals: overview, in R.E. Winans and J.C. Crelling, eds., Chemistry and Characterization of Coal Macerals: Washington, American Chemical Society, ACS Symposium Series 252, p. 1-20.